I think many developers have been wondering: How many bytes does an object instance take in managed code? What’s the limit for a CLR object? Are there any differences between 32-bit and 64-bit systems for memory allocation?
Now, I am going to describe this process on a particular example to check whether it will allow us to determine the use of the object comparison by value in general and thus, to simplify a sample of comparing objects by value – class instances that represent reference types.
In my previous publication, I described the fullest and the most correct way to compare objects by value – class instances that represent reference types in the .NET framework.
Now, I am going to determine how it is possible to modify the proposed method to compare instances of the structs that represent value types.
In the previous article, we analyzed how to compare objects by value on a particular example with the Person class that includes:
- Overriding the GetHashCode() andObject.Equals(Object) methods;
- Implementation of the IEquatable (Of T) interface;
- Implementation of the type-specific static method Equals(Person, Person) and operators ==(Person, Person), !=(Person, Person).
Now, we will explore a type-specific implementation of how to compare objects by value including the IEquatable(Of T) generic interface and overload of “==” and “!=” operators.
Type-specific comparison of objects by value allows achieving:
- a more stable, scalable and mnemonic (readable) code through overloaded operators;
- higher performance.
In the previous article, we have reviewed a general concept of implementing a minimum set of required modifications that include overriding the Object.Equals(Object) and Object.GetHashCode() methods in order to compare class objects by value on a standard .NET framework.
Let’s consider the implementation features of the Object.Equals(Object) method so that it meets the following documentation requirement:
x.Equals(y) returns the same value as y.Equals(x).
It is a common fact that the .NET object model, as well as other software program platforms, allow comparing objects by reference and by value.
By default, two objects are equal if the corresponding object variables have the same reference. Otherwise, they are different.
However, in some cases, you may need to state that two objects belonging to the same class are equal if their content match in a certain way.
Assume we have the Person class, which contains some personal data – First Name, Last Name, and Birth date.
Consider the following points:
- What is the minimum required number of class modifications to assure comparing class objects by values with the help of the standard .NET architecture?
- What is the minimum required number of class modifications to assure comparing class objects by values (every time, if not explicitly stated that objects may be compared by a reference) with the help of the standard .NET architecture?
For each case, we will see the best way to compare objects by value to get a consistent, compact, copy-paste free, and productive code. It is not as trivial as it may seem for the first time.
In the object-oriented programming world, the concept of inheritance has been criticized for a long time.
There are quite a lot of arguments:
- A derived class inherits all the parent’s data and behavior that is not always necessary. When modifying a parent class, some data and behavior that are not supposed to be in the derived class get into it;
- Virtual methods are less productive. If a language allows declaring a non-virtual method, what would you do when you need to override one in an inherited method? You can mark the method with the new keyword, however, in this case, polymorphism will not work. The consequent use of this object may cause unexpected behavior, depending on the type the object is going to be converted to.
- The vast majority of languages do not allow multiple inheritance.
- There are tasks where inheritance is helpless. Consider the case, when you need to create a container (array, list, or set) and implement the same behavior for elements with different types. In addition, you need to provide static typing. In this case, generics will come to help.
Sorting is a typical task each programmer should be aware of. That’s why this article is dedicated to the implementation of sorting in .NET. I will describe how array sorting works in .NET, its aspects, and make a small comparison with sorting in Java.
Let’s begin with the fact that the first versions of .NET use the quicksort algorithm by default. So, let’s consider pros and cons of the quicksort.
- One of the most high-performance algorithms(on a practical level) of general-purpose internal sorting.
- Easy implementation.
- Requires just O(logn) of additional memory for its operation.
- Can be easily combined with caching and internal memory mechanisms.
The string data type is one of the most significant data types in any programming language. You can hardly write a useful program without it. Nevertheless, many developers do not know certain aspects of this type. Therefore, let’s consider these aspects.
Representation of strings in memory
In .Net, strings are located according to the BSTR (Basic string or binary string) rule. This method of string data representation is used in COM (the word ‘basic’ originates from the Visual Basic programming language in which it was initially used). As we know, PWSZ (Pointer to Wide-character String, Zero-terminated) is used in C/C++ for representation of strings. With such location in memory, a null-terminated is located in the end of a string. This terminator allows to determine the end of the string. The string length in PWSZ is limited only by a volume of free space. (more…)