StringBuilder: the Past and the Future

In the previous article, I elaborated on peculiarities of string concatenation. In this article, I would like to consider the StringBuilder class in detail.

As we all know, strings in .Net are immutable (without use of unsafe). Therefore, it is not a good idea to perform concatenation frequently. It means that the following code has quite serious problems with memory load:

So, what is wrong with this code?
(more…)

Foreach or For – That is the Question

The discussion about the preference difference between FOREACH and FOR is not new. We all know that FOREACH is slower, but not all know why.

When I started learning .NET, one person told me that FOREACH is two times slower than FOR. He said this without any grounds. I took it for granted.

Eventually, I decided to explore foreach and for loop performance difference, and write this article to discuss nuances. (more…)

Long Arithmetic from Microsoft

It is known, a computer can operate numbers with a limited number of bits. As a rule, we are accustomed to work with the 32-bit and 64-bit integers. On the .Net platform, the Int32 (int) and Int64 (long) types correspond to these integers.

But what to do if we need to represent, for instance, number 29! = 8841761993739701954543616000000? Such number won’t fit both 32-bit and 64-bit data types. Long arithmetic is designed specifically for working with such big numbers.

In computing technology, long arithmetic implies operations (addition, multiplication, subtraction, division, raising to a power etc.) with numbers, the bitness of which exceeds the length word of the given computer. These operations are implemented not by hardware but by software with the help of basic hardware for working with small-order numbers.

(more…)

Is string operator “+” so simple?

Introduction

A string data type is one of the fundamental data types, along with numeric (int, long, double) and logical (Boolean) ones. You can hardly imagine at least one useful program that does not utilize this type.

On the .NET platform, the string type is presented as an immutable String class. In addition, it is strongly integrated into the CLR environment and is also supported by the C# compiler.

This article is devoted to concatenation – an operation performed on strings as often as the addition operation on numerals. You may think: “What is there to say?”, after all, we all know about string operator “+”, but as it turned out, it has its own quirks.

(more…)

Under the Hood of Stopwatch

Introduction

As all developers, I often need to measure the execution time of my own (and not only my own) code. When I was a beginning programmer, I used the DateTime structure for this purpose. Time have passed and I learned about the Stopwatch class and began using it extensively. I think most of you had a similar experience. It’s not like I didn’t wonder about how Stopwatch works, at that time, it was simply enough for me to know that Stopwatch measures the elapsed time more precise than DateTime. Now the time has come to explain to myself as well as to the readers how the Stopwatch class actually works and clarify its pros and cons in comparison with DateTime.
(more…)

Handling a GDI Resource Leak

GDI leak (or, simply the usage of too many GDI objects) is one of the most common problems. It eventually causes rendering problems, errors, and/or performance problems. The article describes how we debug this problem.

In 2016, when most programs are executed in sandboxes wherefrom even the most incompetent developer cannot harm the system, I am amazed to face the problem I will speak about in this article. Frankly speaking, I hoped that this problem had gone forever together with Win32Api. Nevertheless, I faced it. Before that, I just heard horror stories about it from old more experienced developers. (more…)