Comparing Objects by Value. Part 2. Implementation Notes of the Equals Method

In the previous article, we have reviewed a general concept of implementing a minimum set of required modifications that include overriding the Object.Equals(Object) and Object.GetHashCode() methods in order to compare class objects by value on a standard .NET framework.

Let’s consider the implementation features of the Object.Equals(Object) method so that it meets the following documentation requirement:

x.Equals(y) returns the same value as y.Equals(x).

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Comparing Objects by Value. Part 1. Beginning

It is a common fact that the .NET object model, as well as other software program platforms, allow comparing objects by reference and by value.

By default, two objects are equal if the corresponding object variables have the same reference. Otherwise, they are different.

However, in some cases, you may need to state that two objects belonging to the same class are equal if their content match in a certain way.

Assume we have the Person class, which contains some personal data – First Name, Last Name, and Birth date.

Consider the following points:

  1. What is the minimum required number of class modifications to assure comparing class objects by values with the help of the standard .NET architecture?
  2. What is the minimum required number of class modifications to assure comparing class objects by values (every time, if not explicitly stated that objects may be compared by a reference) with the help of the standard .NET architecture?

For each case, we will see the best way to compare objects by value to get a consistent, compact, copy-paste free, and productive code. It is not as trivial as it may seem for the first time.

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Composition and Interfaces in OOP World

In the object-oriented programming world, the concept of inheritance has been criticized for a long time.

There are quite a lot of arguments:

  • A derived class inherits all the parent’s data and behavior that is not always necessary. When modifying a parent class, some data and behavior that are not supposed to be in the derived class get into it;
  • Virtual methods are less productive. If a language allows declaring a non-virtual method, what would you do when you need to override one in an inherited method? You can mark the method with the new keyword, however, in this case, polymorphism will not work. The consequent use of this object may cause unexpected behavior, depending on the type the object is going to be converted to.
  • The vast majority of languages do not allow multiple inheritance.
  • There are tasks where inheritance is helpless. Consider the case, when you need to create a container (array, list, or set) and implement the same behavior for elements with different types. In addition, you need to provide static typing. In this case, generics will come to help.

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Sorting in .NET

Sorting is a typical task each programmer should be aware of. That’s why this article is dedicated to the implementation of sorting in .NET. I will describe how array sorting works in .NET, its aspects, and make a small comparison with sorting in Java.

Let’s begin with the fact that the first versions of .NET use the quicksort algorithm by default. So, let’s consider pros and cons of the quicksort.

Pros

  1. One of the most high-performance algorithms(on a practical level) of general-purpose internal sorting.
  2. Easy implementation.
  3. Requires just O(logn) of additional memory for its operation.
  4. Can be easily combined with cashing and internal memory mechanisms.

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Aspects of Strings in .NET

The string data type is one of the most significant data types in any programming language. You can hardly write a useful program without it. Nevertheless, many developers do not know certain aspects of this type. Therefore, let’s consider these aspects.

Representation of strings in memory

In .Net, strings are located according to the BSTR (Basic string or binary string) rule. This method of string data representation is used in COM (the word ‘basic’ originates from the Visual Basic programming language in which it was initially used). As we know, PWSZ (Pointer to Wide-character String, Zero-terminated) is used in C/C++ for representation of strings. With such location in memory, a null-terminated is located in the end of a string. This terminator allows to determine the end of the string. The string length in PWSZ is limited only by a volume of free space. (more…)

StringBuilder: the Past and the Future

In the previous article, I elaborated on peculiarities of string concatenation. In this article, I would like to consider the StringBuilder class in detail.

As we all know, strings in .Net are immutable (without use of unsafe). Therefore, it is not a good idea to perform concatenation frequently. It means that the following code has quite serious problems with memory load:

So, what is wrong with this code?
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Long Arithmetic from Microsoft

It is known, a computer can operate numbers with a limited number of bits. As a rule, we are accustomed to work with the 32-bit and 64-bit integers. On the .Net platform, the Int32 (int) and Int64 (long) types correspond to these integers.

But what to do if we need to represent, for instance, number 29! = 8841761993739701954543616000000? Such number won’t fit both 32-bit and 64-bit data types. Long arithmetic is designed specifically for working with such big numbers.

In computing technology, long arithmetic implies operations (addition, multiplication, subtraction, division, raising to a power etc.) with numbers, the bitness of which exceeds the length word of the given computer. These operations are implemented not by hardware but by software with the help of basic hardware for working with small-order numbers.

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Under the Hood of Stopwatch

Introduction

As all developers, I often need to measure execution time of my own (and not only my own) code. When I was a beginning programmer, I used the DateTime structure for his purpose. Time have passed and I learned about the Stopwatch class and began using it extensively. I think most of you had similar experience. It’s not like I didn’t wonder about how Stopwatch works, at that time, it was simply enough for me to know that Stopwatch measures the elapsed time more precise than DateTime. Now the time has come to explain to myself as well as to the readers how the Stopwatch class actually works and clarify its pros and cons in comparison with DateTIme.
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