Fundamentals of Managing Datafiles in SQL Server

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Introduction

Datafiles are physical objects that constitute the most important part of the database system since they contain actual data. You can think of a database as a collection of data files. An instance gives you the means of mounting and accessing such files.

Here, managing datafiles is understanding how to monitor and resize existing datafiles and how to add or remove the data files from a database.

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Use Cases for SQL Server MERGE Statement: Syncing Online and History Tables

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INTRODUCTION

The SQL Server MERGE statement is an incredibly useful tool for carrying out DML operations based on comparing two tables or two data sets. Usage of this statement is actually like performing multiple operations in a single statement.

This article will explore three use cases that border on ensuring data between an online table and a history table in sync.

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Manage MDF Files in SQL Server 2019

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An SQL Server database contains primary data files, secondary data files (optional), and transaction log files.

The primary and secondary datafiles contain tables, database objects, schema, and data.

The file extension of the primary database file is *.mdf, and the file extension of the secondary data file is *.ndf.

The transaction log files store all the changes made by the transactions (insert, update, and delete). If the SQL Server restarts unexpectedly or crashes, the database engine rolls the incomplete transaction back before the point of failure using the Transaction log file.

The extension of the transaction log file is *.ldf. You might want to refer to this article to understand the Transaction Log Files architecture.

In this article, I am going to explain how we can manage the database files (MDF files) in SQL Server 2019.

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Everything You Need to Know About SQL CTE in One Spot

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The first time Karl heard of SQL Server CTE was when he was looking for something to make his SQL code easier for the eye. It’s kind of a headache when you look at it. Anton, his concerned colleague, asked him about CTE. Karl thought Anton was referring to his headache. Maybe he heard it all wrong, so he answered, “Of course not.” The funny thing is, he was referring to Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy, also a CTE – a neurodegenerative disease caused by repeated head injuries. But based on Karl’s response, Anton knew for sure that his colleague was clueless about what he was saying.

What a crazy way to introduce CTEs! So, before you get into the same boat, let’s clarify, what is SQL CTE or Common Table Expressions in the SQL world?

You can read the basics here. Meanwhile, we’ll learn a bit more about what happened in this unusual story.

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Handling the NULL Values Effectively with the SQL COALESCE Function for Beginners

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This article aims to help beginners understand the basics of the T-SQL COALESCE function and its application for handling NULL values. Additionally, the readers will get hands-on experience by implementing some simple examples of this function.

We’ll also highlight the importance of T-SQL functions in resolving database analytical problems.

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Using CASE Expressions in SQL Server

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Introduction

CASE Expressions in SQL Server are used for the column values substitution to present the result sets in a particular fashion or simple queries. Use cases for such commands are various.

For instance, there is a column containing the department code, but you wish to display the department’s name rather than the code. You could achieve it by doing a JOIN with another table containing the department details. However, let’s assume you want to keep the query relatively simple. Another use case would be returning specific values for the computed values set. Computed columns would not fit if the sets of conditions to specify are not the same.

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Your Ultimate Guide to SQL Join: INNER JOIN – Part 1

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Inner join, outer join, cross join? What gives?

It’s a valid question. I once saw a Visual Basic code with T-SQL codes embedded in it. The VB code retrieves table records with multiple SELECT statements, one SELECT * per table. Then, it combines multiple result sets into a record set. Absurd?

To the young developers who did it, it was not. But when they asked me to evaluate why the system was slow, that issue was the first to catch my attention. That’s right. They never heard of SQL joins. In fairness to them, they were honest and open to suggestions.

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SQL Server Inner Join Basics with Examples

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Introduction

T-SQL allows us to combine records from more than one table and return them as a single result set. This is achieved through the concept of joins in SQL Server.

This opportunity is often necessary because data in relational databases are typically normalized. For example, we have employee data spread across two or more tables. The first table would be the basic customer data and called employee. The second table would be the department.

The data consistency requires the correct relationship between the customer and the department. Returning the complete data for a set of employees and their departments requires to join both tables.

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