What is a Transaction Log?
There is a requirement in relational database systems that transactions must be durable. This is “D” in the ACID properties of transactions. The system must ensure that if a sudden crash happens, the transaction can be replayed. SQL Server fulfills this requirement by capturing all transactions in a physical file called a transaction log file.
In essence, every time a transaction is committed, SQL Server records changes produced by that transaction in a transaction log. Even if the transaction has not been persisted in the data file, it is available in the transaction log and can be replayed in the event of a sudden crash.Read More